Are Wolverine Powers Possible?金刚狼的力量可能吗?

Author: William Tsay

作者: William Tsay

Editors: Ken Saito, Tharindi Jayatilake, Jasleen Matharu

编辑: Ken Saito, Thanrindi Jayatilake, Jasleen Matharu

Artist: Gianluca Zhang

艺术家: Gianluca Zhang




Blurb: For the year 2030, it is estimated that 85% of jobs that will exist then do not exist as of now, but will those jobs include the scientific field of regeneration? Read on to learn more about regeneration from animals such as lobsters and salamanders to our human body.


到 2030 年,估计 85% 的工作岗位将不存在,但这些工作岗位是否包括再生科学? 继续阅读以了解有关从龙虾和蝾螈等动物身上再生身体的更多信息。


For centuries, regeneration has always been a fascinating concept for humans. Due to its potential uses in medicine (treating injuries and diseases), regeneration could be an important field in the future. The question remains: can humans actually regenerate an organ or a limb?


几个世纪以来,再生一直是人类的一个引人入胜的概念。 由于其在医学中的潜在用途(治疗损伤和疾病),再生可能是未来的一个重要领域。 问题仍然存在:人类真的可以再生器官或四肢吗?


Regeneration is the natural process of restoring cells, organs, limbs, or even entire body parts. All organisms, simple or complex, have the ability to regenerate. Salamanders are one reptile that is known to be able to regenerate its own heart. Another more familiar form of regeneration may be humans regrowing hair or skin overtime. One way some animals replace missing parts is by growing a blastema. These blastema cells then quickly divide to form the bones, skin, and muscles needed to create the lost structure. Some organisms that use blastema to regenerate are lobsters, catfish, and lizards. An interesting organism is a planarian, a free-living flatworm. Cutting a planarian into a million pieces would only result in a million individual organisms. Humans have the same genes and pathways used by these animals, but why can’t we exhibit such extensive regeneration?


再生是恢复细胞、器官、四肢甚至整个身体部位的自然过程。 所有生物,无论是简单的还是复杂的,都能够再生。 蝾螈是一种爬行动物,以其再生心脏的能力而闻名。 另一种更熟悉的再生形式可能是人类加班加点再生头发或皮肤。 一些动物替换缺失部分的一种方法是培育胚胎。 这些囊胚细胞然后迅速分裂形成骨骼、皮肤和肌肉,从而形成丢失的结构。 一些利用细菌再生的生物是龙虾、鲶鱼和蜥蜴。 一种有趣的生物是涡虫,一种自由生活的扁虫。 将涡虫切成一百万块只会产生一百万个个体生物。 人类拥有这些动物使用的相同基因和途径,但为什么我们不能表现出如此广泛的再生呢?



Complex organisms like humans have limited regenerative capabilities; however, humans can regrow some organs. Lungs and livers can regenerate into their original size if they don’t suffer a serious enough injury to require a transplant. However, limbs are a different story. While a certain answer is indefinite, there are a couple of theories. To grow a blastema is to grow a bunch of cells, and if these new cells get out of control and divide uncontrollably, they can begin to behave like cancer. Another theory is that humans are just too complex; regrowing a starfish limb is much simpler than regrowing the intricate flesh and bone on a human leg. According to the National Geographic, even if humans were able to generate a limb, it would take 15-20 years. Unfortunately, for the foreseeable future, we may have to look towards nature to witness such amazing regeneration.


像人类这样的复杂生物的再生能力有限; 然而,人类可以再生一些器官。 如果肺和肝脏没有受损到需要移植的程度,它们可以再生到原来的大小。 然而,四肢是另一回事。 虽然某个答案是不确定的,但有几种理论。 培养一个囊胚就是培养一堆细胞,如果这些新细胞失控并不受控制地分裂,它们就会开始表现得像癌症一样。 另一个理论是人类太复杂了。 再生海星的四肢比再生人腿复杂的肉和骨头要简单得多。 据《国家地理》报道,即使人类能够生产出四肢,也需要 15-20 年的时间。 不幸的是,在可预见的未来,我们可能不得不仰望大自然来见证如此惊人的再生。

Citation:

“Regeneration.” National Institute of General Medical Sciences, U.S. Department of Health and

Human Services, www.nigms.nih.gov/education/fact-sheets/Pages/regeneration.aspx.

Sam Westreich, PhD. “Why Can't We Regrow Limbs?” Medium, Sharing Science, 22 July 2020,

medium.com/a-microbiome-scientist-at-large/why-cant-we-regrow-limbs-32ba3c42e245.

Yong, Ed. “Will We Ever Regenerate Limbs?” Science, National Geographic, 3 May 2021,

www.nationalgeographic.com/science/article/will-we-ever-regenerate-limbs.


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